The key problem in refining is that, although crude oil refining is a continuous and high-volume process with very significant raw-material and energy costs, it is not steady-state. Crude oil feedstocks vary continuously in quality, availability and cost – while at the same time refinery products and their markets are very dynamic in terms of demand, specifications and pricing. This leads to the use of relatively complex whole-refinery linear programming (LP) models to manage these changes. Underneath these models, individual process unit Advanced Process Control (APC) packages need to keep the units on target (even though these targets will change) and under control. Download this report here!